Determination of antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of wild and ornamental flowers of Ixora coccinea
LE3 .A278 2020
Bachelor of Science
Ixora coccinea is a small plant, most commonly used in Sri Lankan traditional medicine for the treatment of skin disease, eye disease, leucorrhoea, candida infection and, whooping cough. The flowers of two variety of the plant namely: wild and ornamental were extracted with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) graded methanol by maceration method and soxhlet apparatus. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to analyze bioactive compounds present in the crude extract of I. coccinea wild and ornamental flowers. The parameters of mass spectral analysis namely: retention time and characteristics of the peak using the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library were considered for the detection of compounds. The agar disc diffusion method was used for the analysis of the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of I. coccinea. The micro-organisms used for the bioassay included Staphylococcus sp. and Bacillus sp. (Gram-positive), and Escherichia coli and Proteus sp. (Gram-negative). The major compounds present in the wild crude extract were 4-hydroxypyridine 1-oxide (23.124%), hexanedioic acid, bis (2-ethyl-hexyl) ester (12.022%) and succinic acid, di (3,5-dimethylcyclohexyl) ester (8.940%). The ornamental crude extract had cyclohexasiloxane dodecamethyl (28.015%), octacosane (24.274%), cycloneptasiloxane tetradecamethyl (16.361%) and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono (2-ethylhexy) ester (11.854%) as the major compounds. Both wild and ornamental I. coccinea showed potent antibacterial activity. The ornamental I. coccinea extract was most effective against E.coli and Bacillus sp. and showed minimum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus sp. and Proteus sp. whereas, the wild crude extract was effective for all four bacterial species with a maximum antibacterial activity against E. coli. The presence of alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and carbohydrates was observed in the flower extract of I. coccinea.
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