Risk factors for depression and anxiety: parenting, personality and coping
LE3 .A278 2001
Master of Science
Two studies examined risk factors for depression and anxiety. Parenting attributes (care and protection), cortisol reactivity (in response to an experimental stressor, the Trier Social Stress Test), personality (self-efficacy and perceived social support), coping styles (task, emotion and avoidance) and stressors (life-events and daily hassles) were included as measures. Cortisol reactivity was applicable for Study 1 only. Study 1 incorporated experimental and longitudinal components. There was a total of 18 participants for this study. Time 1 measures of self-efficacy, and of anxiety and depressive symptomatology failed to predict later symptomatology. Individual differences in cortisol reactivity were found in relation to differing parenting styles as measured by the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI). Low care and high protection scores on the PBI were related to higher cortisol reactivity. Study 2 examined the extent to which early parent-child relationships contribute to anxiety and depressive symptomatology through the development of personality and coping style. A total of 184 Acadia University students participated in this study. A proposed model with mediating and moderating relations among the variables was tested. The relations between parenting and coping styles were mediated by personality. Perceived social support was found to have both direct and indirect effects on mental health with task and emotion coping partially mediating their relation. Self-efficacy also had direct and indirect erects on mental health with emotion coping partially mediating their relation. Stress measures (life events and daily hassles) added to the prediction of anxiety and depressive symptomatology above coping and personality. Implications regarding findings and future directions are discussed.
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